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​Sedimentitas marinas del Neógeno en la bahía de Tumaco, Nariño

 Volume 3 Chapter 4

Chapter 4

Late Cretaceous to Cenozoic Uplift of the Northern Andes: Paleogeographic Implications   

Andrés MORA, Diego VILLAGÓMEZ, Mauricio PARRA, Víctor M. CABALLERO, Richard SPIKINGS, Brian K. HORTON, Josué Alejandro MORA–BOHÓRQUEZ, Richard A. KETCHAM, and Juan Pablo ARIAS–MARTÍNEZ

https://doi.org/10.32685/pub.esp.37.2019.04


ISBN impreso obra completa: 978-958-52959-1-9

ISBN digital obra completa: 978-958-52959-6-4

ISBN impreso Vol. 3: 978-958-52959-4-0

ISBN digital Vol. 3: 978-958-53131-0-1​


Citation is suggested as: 

Mora, A., Villagómez, D., Parra, M., Caballero, V.M., Spikings, R., Horton, B.K., Mora–Bohórquez, J.A., Ketcham, R.A. & Arias–Martínez, J.P. 2020. Late Cretaceous to Cenozoic uplift of the northern Andes: Paleogeographic implications. In: Gómez, J. & Mateus–Zabala, D. (editors), The Geology of Colombia, Volume 3 Paleogene – Neogene. Servicio Geológico Colombiano, Publicaciones Geológicas Especiales 37, p. 89–121. Bogotá. https://doi.org/10.32685/pub.esp.37.2019.04


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Abstract 


In this chapter, we summarize recent work on the geologic evolution of the northern Andes. Our intention is to present current information so that scientists from other disciplines can differentiate data from interpretations. In this effort, we focus on thermochronological data that provide precise places, dates, and rates. Thermochronological data provide cooling histories for rocks of the upper crust, whereas provenance data offer insights on rocks that have been eroded away. In reviewing published data, we provide a critical overview of recent paleogeographic interpretations. Specifically, we discuss hypotheses such as (i) Eocene proto–Magdalena River draining toward the Maracaibo Basin, (ii) the presence of a closed proto–Magdalena basin from the late Eocene to middle Miocene, (iii) the Miocene closure of the Isthmus of Panamá, (iv) the late Cenozoic surface uplift of the Eastern Cordillera, and (v) the Cenozoic eastward advance of the Orinoco River. We conclude that in most cases, favored ideas remain as intriguing hypotheses, but there remains room for alternative interpretations. The present summary is intended to provide a cautionary note on the use of limited datasets to make paleogeographic interpretations of the northern Andes.

 

Keywords: paleogeography, thermochronology, U–Pb geochronology, sedimentary provenance, rock uplift, surface uplift, paleoelevation, paleodrainages.​



Resumen


En este capítulo se resumen trabajos recientes relacionados con la evolución geológica de los Andes del norte. La principal intención es presentar información actual para que los científicos de otras disciplinas puedan diferenciar entre datos e interpretaciones. Este trabajo se enfoca en datos termocronológicos que brindan localizaciones, edades y tasas precisas. Los datos termocronológicos proporcionan historias de enfriamiento para las rocas de la corteza superior, mientras que los de procedencia sedimentaria contribuyen con información sobre las rocas que se han erosionado. A partir de la revisión de datos públicos se da una visión crítica de las interpretaciones paleogeográficas publicadas recientemente. Específicamente, se discuten las siguientes hipótesis: (i) el proto río Magdalena del Eoceno drenando hacia la Cuenca de Maracaibo, (ii) la presencia de una proto cuenca cerrada del Magdalena entre el Eoceno tardío y el Mioceno medio, (iii) el cierre del Istmo de Panamá durante el Mioceno, (iv) el crecimiento topográfico de la cordillera Oriental en el Cenozoico tardío y (v) el avance hacia el este del trazo del río Orinoco durante el Cenozoico. Se concluye que, en la mayoría de los casos, las ideas más sustentadas permanecen como hipótesis interesantes, pero queda espacio para otras interpretaciones. Este trabajo intenta advertir sobre el uso de una cantidad limitada de datos para hacer interpretaciones paleogeográficas de los Andes del norte.

 

Palabras clave: paleogeografía, termocronología, geocronología U‒Pb, procedencia sedimentaria, levantamiento de roca, levantamiento de superficie, paleoelevación, paleodrenajes.​



Abbreviations


AFT                               Apatite fission track

AHe                              Apatite (U–Th)/He

GPS                              Global Position System

T–t                                  Time–temperature

ZFT                                Zircon fission track

ZHe                             Zircon (U–Th)/He​



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