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​Sedimentitas marinas del Neógeno en la bahía de Tumaco, Nariño

 Volume 3 Chapter 12

Chapter 12

The Combia Volcanic Province: Miocene Post‒Collisional Magmatism in the Northern Andes   ​ 

Marion WEBER, José Fernando DUQUE, Susana HOYOS, Andrés L. CÁRDENAS–ROZO, Jorge GÓMEZ, and Rob WILSON

https://doi.org/10.32685/pub.esp.37.2019.12


ISBN impreso obra completa: 978-958-52959-1-9

ISBN digital obra completa: 978-958-52959-6-4

ISBN impreso Vol. 3: 978-958-52959-4-0

ISBN digital Vol. 3: 978-958-53131-0-1​


Citation is suggested as: 

Weber, M., Duque, J.F., Hoyos, S., Cárdenas–Rozo, A.L., Gómez, J. & Wilson, R. 2020. The Combia Volcanic Province: Miocene post–collisional magmatism in the northern Andes. In: Gómez, J. & Mateus–Zabala, D. (editors), The Geology of Colombia, Volume 3 Paleogene – Neogene. Servicio Geológico Colombiano, Publicaciones Geológicas Especiales 37, p. 355–394. Bogotá. https://doi.org/10.32685/pub.esp.37.2019.12


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Abstract 


A transtensional basin setting originated the Combia Volcanic Province in the northern Andes of Colombia. Volcanism is heterogeneous encompasses tholeiitic, calc–alkaline, and shoshonitic magmatic series. A review of existing geochemical and geochronological data suggests that all magma series coexisted between 12 and 6 Ma but originated from different processes. Tholeiites formed via the melting of a modified primitive mantle source, with limited sedimentary or continental–contaminant input. Calc–alkaline magmas are mainly adakitic and formed from fractionation of garnet and amphibole at high pressures from a hydrous melt from an enriched source. Petrographic and mineral chemistry of garnet–bearing rocks indicate that magmas underwent at least three ascent phases that include: (1) crystallization of high–pressure phenocryst phases at 900 °C and 1200 GPa in a mantle–derived melt, (2) stalling of differentiated magma at lower–pressure conditions, and (3) stalling at shallower conditions, where decompression occurred. Shoshonitic magmas formed via from a mantle with sedimentary or continental–contaminant input source in the plagioclase stability field. Finally, Combia Volcanic Province's formation was enhanced by the Caldas Tear, a slab window developed by the subduction of the Sandra Ridge beneath the South American Plate.

 

Keywords: Combia Formation, shallow–volcanic intrusions, tholeiitic magmatism, calc–alkaline magmas, adakites, shoshonitic magmatism, igneous garnet.​


Resumen 


La Provincia Volcánica de Combia en el norte de los Andes de Colombia se formó en un ambiente de cuenca transtensional. El vulcanismo es heterogéneo y comprende series magmáticas toleíticas, calcoalcalinas y shoshoníticas. Una revisión de los datos geoquímicos y geocronológicos existentes sugiere que las tres composiciones de magma coexistieron entre 12 y 6 Ma, pero se originaron por diferentes procesos. Las toleítas se formaron a partir de una fuente de manto primitivo modificada, con limitado suministro de contaminante sedimentario o continental. Los magmas calcoalcalinos son principalmente adakíticos y se formaron del fraccionamiento de granate y anfíbol a altas presiones a partir de un fundido hidratado proveniente de una fuente enriquecida. Los datos petrográficos y de química mineral de rocas con granate indican que estos magmas experimentaron por lo menos tres fases de ascenso que incluyen: (1) cristalización de las fases de fenocristales de alta presión a 900 °C y 1200 GPa en un fundido derivado del manto, (2) estancamiento del magma diferenciado a más bajas condiciones de presión y (3) estancamiento en condiciones superficiales, donde ocurrió la descompresión. Los magmas shoshoníticos se formaron a partir de una fuente mantélica con aporte sedimentario o continental, en el campo de estabilidad de la plagioclasa. La formación de la Provincia Volcánica de Combia fue acentuada por el Caldas Tear, una ventana en la placa desarrollada por la subducción del Sandra Ridge bajo la Placa de Suramérica.

 

Palabras clave: Formación Combia, intrusivos volcánicos someros, magmatismo toleítico, magmas calcoalcalinos, adakitas, magmatismo shoshonítico, granate ígneo.​


Abbreviations 


ADR                                    Andesite dacite rhyolite

AF                                           Amagá Formation

AFC                                    Assimilation and fractional crystallization

CF                                           Combia Formation

CSVI                                    Cauca Shallow Volcanic Intrusions

CVP                                      Combia Volcanic Province

E–MORB                      Enriched–mid ocean ridge basalt

GLOSS                             Global subducting sediment

HP                                           High–pressure

HREE                                 Heavy rare earth element

LILE                                                                   Large–ion lithophile element

LOI                                          Loss on ignition

LREE                                    Light rare earth element

MASH                                Melting, assimilation, storage, homogenization.

MORB                                Mid ocean ridge basalt

N–MORB                      Normal–mid ocean ridge basalt

OIB                                         Oceanic island basalt

REE                                         Rare earth element



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